Ground Water

 

 

Principles and Applications of Groundwater Geophysics

3rd Edition

Murali Sabnavis
N.S. Patangay

The book is aimed at geoscientists who are engaged in field surveys including data collection and its interpretation as well as students specialising in this subject. While solving hydrogeological problems, the field scientists may have to undertake some investigations belonging to fields other than geophysics, but which are nevertheless important such as Remote Sensing, pumping Tests etc. The book includes a review of these methods.

More than half of the book is devoted to the explanation of principles of geophysical methods of exploration, equipment, field data collection and interpretation. The methods covered include seismic, magnetic, gravity, radiometry, thermal, electrical and electromagnetic techniques. Some emerging techniques like GPR, NMR, Transient Sounding have been touched upon. Abstracts of more than thirty case histories of the application of geophysical methods have been presented together with illustrations in order to clarify the field applications and help in planning field surveys. A set of computer programmes for interpretation in different methods have been given as appendices.

Disk

Includes a Complimentary Diskette

containing a set of eight programmes along with their code listing in Fortran 77/QBasic for interpretation of geophysical data which can be run on a P.C. in the DOS mode.



AEG Publication No. 40
Year of Publication : 1998
Number of Pages : 419
Illustrations : 333
Book Size : 18 cm x 25 cm
Price :
Rs. 1000 + 120* (in India)
US$ 100 + 10* (abroad)
* Postage and packing



Published by & Copies can be had from
Association of Exploration Geophysicists
12-13-157, Street No.2, Tarnaka
Hyderabad - 500 017, India
Ph:27014762, 27000392(Off), 27171383 (Res);
E-mail:aegind@yahoo.com

Web : www.aegind.org


CONTENTS

1. Introduction

1.1 Importance of groundwater; 1.2 Advantages of groundwater and need for its exploration; 1.3 Geophysical methods of exploration for groundwater; 1.4 Planning and executing geophysical survey programmes

2. Occurrence and Movement of Groundwater

2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Hydrologic Cycle; 2.3 Subsurface Water and its distribution; 2.4 Classification of rocks as aquifers; 2.5 Consolidated Rocks; 2.6 Unconsolidated Rocks; 2.7 Physical Properties of Water Bearing Formations; 2.8 Determination of aquifer Properties from Field and Laboratory Testing; 2.9 Groundwater Provinces of India

3. Hydrogeological Exploration for Groundwater

3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Basic data for hydrogeological exploration; 3.3 Geological and Hydrogeological maps; 3.4 Geomorphological and Topographical maps; 3.5 Hydrogeological prospects in different rock terrains for groundwater exploration; 3.6 Chemistry of groundwater; 3.7 Use of Remote Sensing methods; 3.8 Study of joints and fractures; 3.9 Types of Hydrogeological maps; 3.10 Groundwater Balance; 3.11 Geological Prospecting for groundwater

4. Remote Sensing Methods

4.1 Introduction; 4.2 The Electromagnetic Energy Spectrum; 4.3 Remote Sensing from satellites; 4.4 Digital Processing of remotely sensed imageries; 4.5 Presentation of Remote Sensing Data; 4.6 Interpretation of Remote Sensing Imageries; 4.7 Study of Landforms; 4.8 Structural features; 4.9 Final interpretation; 4.10 Example of Indian Case History

5. Physical Properties of Earth Materials

Electrical Properties of Rocks

5.1 Introduction; 5.2 Electrical resistivity of rocks; 5.3 Induced Polarization; 5.4 Spontaneous Polarisation Potentials; 5.5 Dielectric constant; 5.6 Seismic wave velocities in Rock Formations; 5.7 Variation of Density in Rocks; 5.8 Magnetic Susceptibility of Rocks; 5.9 Thermal conductivities of Rocks; 5.10 Natural Radioactivity of Rocks; 5.11 Interrelationship of Geophysical Parameters and Water Saturation of rocks

6. Geophysical Methods of Prospecting - Part I

Seismic and Magnetic Methods

6.1 Seismic methods; 6.2 Elastic properties of materials and their relation with seismic wave velocities; 6.3 Snellís law; 6.4 Wave propagation in a layered medium; 6.5 Travel time curves and apparent velocity; 6.6 The Refraction Method; 6.7 Reflection method; 6.8 Data Acquisition and Processing of Seismic Data; 6.9 Interpretation of Refraction Seismic Prospecting data; 6.11 Application of Seismic Refraction Methodology in Groundwater Exploration; 6.12 Magnetic method; 6.13 Equipment and Field Procedure for magnetic prospecting; 6.14 Field Procedure; 6.15 Aeromagnetic surveys; 6.16 Micro-Magnetic Surveys; 6.17 Interpretation of Magnetic Field Data; 6.19 Applications of magnetic methods in groundwater

7. Geophysical Methods of Prospecting - Part II

Gravity, Radiometric and Thermal Methods

Gravity Method

7.1 Introduction; 7.2 Equipment and Field Procedure; 7.3 Interpretation of gravity data; 7.4 Applications of gravity method in groundwater prospecting; 7.5 Radiometric method; 7.6 Interpretation; 7.7 Geothermal Method; 7.8 Near Surface measurement of temperatures; 7.9 Interpretation

8. Geophysical Methods of Prospecting - Part III

Electrical Methods

8.1 General; 8.2 Direct Current Methods; 8.3 Resistivity Methods; 8.4 Apparent Resistivity; 8.5 Geoelectrical Section; 8.6 Electrical resistivity profiling; 8.7 Applications of Electrical Profiling; 8.8 Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES); 8.9 Interpretation of VES Data; 8.10 Applications of VES in hydrogeological surveys; 8.11 Induced Polarization Method; 8.12 Spontaneous Polarization Method; 8.13 Electrical anisotropy and Radial measurements of resistivity; 8.14 Charged Body Method

9. Geophysical Methods of Prospecting - Part IV

Electromagnetic Methods

9.1 General; 9.2 E.M. Profiling Methods; 9.3 Slingram Method; 9.4 The DIPF method; 9.5 Applications; 9.6 Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic method; 9.7 Frequency Electromagnetic Sounding (FEMS) Techniques; 9.8 The E.M.Transient method; 9.9 Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Method; 9.10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Method of groundwater prospecting

10. Geophysical Methods of Prospecting - Part V

Geophysical Well Logging Methods

10.1 Introduction; 10.2 Borehole Conditions; 10.3 Objectives of geophysical well logging; 10.4 Scheme of Well Logging Operations; 10.5 Classification of Well Logging Methods; 10.6 Electrical Logging; 10.7 Nuclear and Radiometric Logging Techniques; 10.8 Example of an Application of Well Logging for Groundwater in Hard Rocks; 10.9 Application of Geophysical Well Logging as an aid for Hydrofracturing; 10.10 Application of electrical logging for well construction

11. Case Histories

11.1 General; 11.2 The study of subsurface structure of large groundwater basins; 11.3 Geophysical Surveys for delineating buried river valleys; 11.4 Geophysical methods for aiding artificial recharge studies; 11.5 Determination of hydrogeological parameters of aquifers from surface resistivity studies; 11.6 Geophysical surveys for demarcation of polluted groundwater zones; 11.7 Seawater intrusion studies using geophysical methods; 11.8 Study of unconsolidated deposits by geophysical methods; 11.9 Hydrogeological Studies in arid environment; 11.10 Groundwater exploration in volcanic areas; 11.11 Ground water investigations in Hard rock region; 11.12 Groundwater investigations in crystalline and karstified areas; 11.13 Geophysical well logging studies as an aid in groundwater studies; 11.14 Determination of groundwater flow direction from surface geophysical methods; 11.15 Application of geophysical methods in land reclamation studies; 11.16 Airborne Geophysical Exploration for Groundwater; 11.17 Geophysical Investigations for Groundwater in Valley Fill Area in Granitic Terrain

Appendix

Index


"The effort by the authors is laudable for its comprehensive nature, novelty of some interpretation techniques described and wide coverage of case histories. As the first of its kind in India, the book merits serious attention of professionals as well as students and teachers in the field of groundwater exploration."

Prof. Hari Narain
Former Director of National Geophysical Research Institute,
Former Vice-Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University, and
Former Surveyor-General of India


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