Contents of April 2002 - Vol. XXIII No.2

GEOPHYSICS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT
N. Venkat Rao and N.S.Patangay

GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS FOR SELECTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL SITES
K.R.Ramanuja Chary, P.Pandu Ranga Rao and N.V.Subbarao

APPLICATION OF GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO TRACE GROUNDWATER POLLUTION DUE TO INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS IN THE HARD ROCK TERRAIN
N. S. Patangay, I. B. Ramaprasada Rao, M. Venkata Chary, Ram Raj Mathur, A.Siva Keshavulu and S. R. P. Srinivas

INTEGRATING GROUND BASED MEASUREMENTS, REMOTE SENSING AND GIS FOR AEROSOLS AND TRACE GASES - A CASE STUDY FROM HYDERABAD AND ITS ENVIRONS
M.Lata, C. Sankar Rao*, V. Krishna Prasad and K.V.S. Badarinath


GEOPHYSICS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT

N. Venkat Rao and N.S.Patangay

Centre of Exploration Geophysics, Osmania University, Hyderabad

Abstract

Geophysics deals with the study of the earth and its environment through the measurement and analysis of physical fields. Exploration geophysics, traditionally concerned with the application of physical techniques to the investigation of the shallow part of the crust with the main objective of exploration for oil and natural gas, minerals and groundwater, has a great role to play in understanding the environment in the near-surface section of the earth, including soil and atmosphere in some cases. A number of geophysical methods are finding new and exciting applications in several environmental problems such as groundwater pollution, location of hazardous waste material, delineation of safe disposal sites, land reclamation, artificial recharge, detection of zones of natural hazards such as landslides, subsurface cavities, etc. Thus a new branch of geophysics called environmental geophysics has come into existence. This paper presents a brief discussion on the various environmental problems and the scope of their investigation by geophysical methods.

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GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS FOR SELECTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

K.R.Ramanuja Chary, P.Pandu Ranga Rao and N.V.Subbarao

Integrated Geo Instruments & Services Private Limited, Hyderabad.

Abstract

Environmental pollution is a major concern with rapid industrialization, urbanization and rise in living standards, as wastes are the products of growth. Inappropriate management of these wastes, whether hazardous or non hazardous, leads to environmental problems. The management of hazardous waste requires treatment and disposal facility. Geophysical techniques can play a vital role in the selection of suitable sites for waste disposal and also to identify the areas affected by the pollution (Dieter Vogelsang, 1995).

This paper describes the investigations carried for identifying a suitable landfill site for hazardous waste disposal.

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APPLICATION OF GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO TRACE GROUNDWATER POLLUTION DUE TO INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS IN THE HARD ROCK TERRAIN

N. S. Patangay, I. B. Ramaprasada Rao, M. Venkata Chary, Ram Raj Mathur, A.Siva Keshavulu and S. R. P. Srinivas

Department of Geophysics, Osmania University, Hyderabad.

Abstract

Industrial effluents, when released untreated into storage ponds contaminate groundwater regime through weak zones. Electromagnetic, electrical resistivity (profiling and sounding) and induced polarization methods were utilized to study the groundwater pollution due to industrial effluents in the hard rock terrain near Hyderabad.

EM surveys bring out an increase in electrical conductivity near the Solar Evaporation Ponds which coincides well with the fractured zone and a basement depression earlier detected by drilling and hydrogeological studies. The electrical resistivity data indicated a substantial lowering of electrical resistivity broadly demarcating the zone of contaminated groundwater. Induced Polarization method appears to be responding to individual zones of contamination within a broad depression in the basement and may form one of the promising tools in this type of application for environmental studies.

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INTEGRATING GROUND BASED MEASUREMENTS, REMOTE SENSING AND GIS FOR AEROSOLS AND TRACE GASES - A CASE STUDY FROM HYDERABAD AND ITS ENVIRONS

M.Lata, C. Sankar Rao*, V. Krishna Prasad and K.V.S. Badarinath

National Remote Sensing Agency, (Dept. of Space-Govt. of India) Balanagar, Hyderabad.
*
Dept. of Geo-Engineering and Resource Development Technology,Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.

Abstract

Aerosols and trace gas emissions in Hyderabad and its environs has been studied by integrating data obtained from ground-based measurements , Remote sensing and GIS. Pollution data with respect to NOx,SO2,TSPM and RSPM for eight stations has been obtained from APPCB and analyzed for statistical autocorrelation. UV measurements with respect to UV-A and SUV have been done using Solar UV-A meter (320-400 nanometers) instruments. In addition,pollution measurements with respect to CO, CO2 and O3 have been measured using online instruments. TOMS satellite data from 1996 and 2000 has been used to study the columnar ozone characteristics for the Hyderabad region. Results from the Aerosol studies for different wavelengths suggested a typical pattern of increase in aerosol optical thickness with decreasing wavelength, i.e.,maximum AOT was observed in the 380-wavelength region. Further, detailed analysis from the diurnal measurements of aerosols suggested that the values in all the wavelengths are particularly higher during the afternoon hours (12:00) and also during early evening (15:00hrs.). Analysis of the results with respect to TOMS columnar ozone over a period of years from 1997 to 2000 suggested a range of 230-285.9 DU with a clear gaussian pattern with a minimum value in the months of January and December and maximum in the month of July. The observed trends of trace gases and Aerosols Optical Depth have been discussed in the paper.

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